BLOCK 5: Valvular Heart Disease
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Learning Objectives By Lesson
1-Aortic Valve Stenosis
  • Describe the pressure-time graph (hemodynamic) changes in aortic valve stenosis
  • Identify various etiologies of aortic valve stenosis
  • Describe how the left ventricle adapts to aortic valve stenosis
  • Describe the physical examination findings in aortic valve stenosis
  • Describe diagnostic approach for aortic valve stenosis
  • Describe general treatment approaches for aortic valve stenosis
2-Mitral Valve Stenosis
  • Describe the pressure-time graph (hemodynamic) changes in mitral valve stenosis
  • Identify various etiologies of mitral valve stenosis
  • Describe the natural history of mitral valve stenosis
  • Describe how the cardiac chambers adapt to mitral valve stenosis
  • Describe the physical examination findings in mitral valve stenosis
  • Describe diagnostic approach for mitral valve stenosis
  • Describe general treatment approaches for mitral valve stenosis
3-Aortic Valve Insufficiency
  • Describe the pressure-time graph (hemodynamic) changes in acute and chronic aortic valve insufficiency
  • Identify various etiologies of aortic valve insufficiency
  • Describe how the left ventricle adapts to aortic valve insufficiency
  • Describe the physical examination findings in acute and chronic aortic valve insufficiency
  • Describe diagnostic approach for aortic valve insufficiency
  • Describe general treatment approaches for aortic valve insufficiency
  • Describe the changes to left ventricular ejection fraction after surgery for aortic valve insufficiency
4-Mitral Valve Insufficiency
  • Describe the pressure-time graph (hemodynamic) changes in acute and chronic mitral valve insufficiency
  • Identify various etiologies of mitral valve insufficiency
  • Describe how the cardiac chambers adapt to chronic mitral valve insufficiency
  • Describe the physical examination findings in acute and chronic mitral valve insufficiency
  • Describe diagnostic approach for mitral valve insufficiency
  • Describe general treatment approaches for mitral valve insufficiency
  • Describe the changes to left ventricular ejection fraction after surgery for mitral valve insufficiency
5-Antithrombotics & Valve Prostheses
  • Describe antithrombotic management approach for mechanical and bioprosthetic valve prostheses in various positions
  • Identify patietns at risk for prosthetic valve thrombosis
  • Describe the assessment and management approach for bridging anticoagulation prior to a procedure in patients with a valve prosthesis
  • Describe the management approach for valve thrombosis
6-Infective Endocarditis: Clinical Findings
  • Define infective endocarditis
  • Describe the epidemiology of infective endocarditis
  • Identify risk factors for infective endocarditis
  • Describe the pathophysiology of infective endocarditis
  • Describe the clinical manifestations of infective endocarditis
  • Describe the diagnostic criteria for infective endocarditis
7-Infective Endocarditis: Investigations & Microbiology
  • Describe the diagnostic workup for infective endocarditis
  • Describe the goals of cardiac imaging in the context of infective endocarditis
  • Identify common pathogens associated with infective endocarditis
8-Infective Endocarditis: Management
  • Idenitfy management issues to consider when treating infective endocarditis
  • Describe the goals and challenges of medical therapies for infective endocarditis
  • Describe the role of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy for infective endocarditis
  • Describe the role of surgery for infective endocarditis
  • Identify risk factors for developing cardiac device infection
  • Describe the management approach for cardiac device infection
  • Describe post-hospitalization care for infective endocarditis
  • Identify candidates and procedures requiring antimicrobial prophylaxis for infective endocarditis
Contributors: Nandan Anavekar, MBBCh; Mahmoud Ismayl, MD; Khalid Saeed Al-Asad, MD; Adnan Halboni, MD; Adolfo Martinez Salazar, MD; Anthony Kashou, MD
Last updated: January 2023.
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