BLOCK 1: Cardiac Physiology (PART 1)
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Learning Objectives By Lesson
1-Cardiac Cycle
  • Label a pressure-time graph
  • Distinguish right- and left-sided pressures in the heart
  • Draw ventricular, atrial, and great vessel graphs on the right and left sides of circulation
  • Identify cardiac events on the pressure-time graph
2-Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP)
  • Identify different components of the jugular venous pressure (JVP) waveform
  • Explain what the jugular venous pressure (JVP) represents
  • Describe the importance of the jugular venous pressure (JVP)
3-Pressure-Volume (PV) Loop
  • Describe the events (valvular and sounds) that occur within a cardiac cycle
  • Label the cardiac events on a pressure-volume (PV) loop
  • List the determinants of left ventricular function
  • Describe how the pressure-volume (PV) loop can be used to evaluate left ventricular function
4-Determinants of Left Ventricular (LV) Function
  • Identify the key determinants of left ventricular function
  • Describe the preload graphical relation of left ventricular function and the effects of changes in preload, afterload, and contractility
  • Describe the afterload graphical relation of left ventricular function and the effects of changes in preload, afterload, and contractility
5-Altering Left Ventricular (LV) Function Parameters
  • Explain what compliance represents
  • Identify factors that influence compliance
  • Describe pressure-volume loop responses to changes in preload, afterload, contractility, and compliance
6-Autonomic Nervous System: Anatomy
  • Describe the basic components and divisions of the nervous system
  • Describe the anatomical classification of the autonomic nervous system
  • Describe the difference between most pre- and post-ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
  • Describe the difference between the cholinergic and adrenergic autonomic receptors
  • Describe the role of negative feedback in autonomic regulation
7-Autonomic Nervous System: Adrenergic System
  • Identify the main neurotransmitters of the adrenergic system
  • Identify common effortor molecules activated in the adrenergic system associated with cardiovascular physiology
  • Identify the various adrenoreceptors and their clinical effects on the cardiovascular system
  • Describe what is meant by tolerance (might also be referred to refractoriness or tachyphylaxis)
  • Describe factors influencing the net effect of adrenergic system
8-Autonomic Nervous System: Cholinergic System
  • Identify the main neurotransmitters and receptors of the cholinergic system
  • Describe the difference between muscarinic and nicotinic receptors
  • Identify common effortor molecules activated in the cholinergic system associated with cardiovascular physiology
  • Describe the main cardiovascular effects of muscarinic agonists
  • Describe the cardiovascular effects of acetylcholine and the influence of the endothelium on its effects
  • Describe the basic autonomic innervation of the heart
9-Autonomic Nervous System: Cardiovascular Regulation
  • Review general rules of the autonomic nervous system's regulation of the cardiovascular system
  • Identify main components contributing to mean arterial pressure
  • Describe the short-term, mid-term, and long-term mechanisms important for autonomic nervous system regulation
  • Describe the gerenal components involved in vascular regulation
  • Describe the baroreceptor reflex and its effects on the cardiovascular system
  • Describe the peripheral regulation factors influencing the circulatory system
Contributors: Nandan Anavekar, MBBCh; Mahmoud Ismayl, MD; Khalid Saeed Al-Asad, MD; Adnan Halboni, MD; Adolfo Martinez Salazar, MD; Anthony Kashou, MD
Last updated: January 2023.
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Teachers
GCU Education Team
Physician Educators