BLOCK 7: Cardiac Anatomy and Congenital Heart Defects (PART 1)
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Learning Objectives By Lesson
1-Cardiac Anatomy
  • Identify important boundaries of the heart
  • Describe the difference between the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes
  • Identify cardiac anatomical structures in coronal, axial, and sagittal planes
  • Identify cardiac anatomical structures in the 2-chamber, 4-chamber, and short axis imaging planes
2-Cardiac Septal Anatomy
  • Identify the three components of the cardiac septum
  • Describe the embryologic development of the interatrial septum
  • Identify the prevalence of patent foramen ovale at different stages of age
  • Describe the five components of the interventricular septum
  • Identify the muscular and membranous components of the interventricular septum
  • Identify the chambers seperated by the atrioventricular septum
3-Pulmonary Venous Anatomy
  • Describe what differentiates normal from abnormal pulmonary venous drainage
  • Describe the importance of understanding pulmonary venous anatomy
  • Describe the basic embryologic development of the pulmonary veins
  • Describe some normal variations of pulmonary venous anatomy
  • Define partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage
  • Describe features associated with Scimitar syndrome
  • Define total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage
4-Atrial Septal Defects
  • Describe the importance of understanding atrial septal defects (ASDs)
  • List the various types of atrial septal defects (ASDs)
  • Identify the anatomical locations of various atrial septal defects (ASDs)
  • Describe the anatomical anomalies associated with Scimitar syndrome
  • Describe the physiology associated with atrial septal defects (ASDs)
  • Describe the difference between restrictive and non-restrictive shunts assocaited with atrial septal defects (ASDs) and how that determines that magnitude of the shunt
  • Describe how to quantify the degree of shunting in atrial septal defects (ASDs)
  • Describe how the hemodynamics can explain the physical exam findings associated with significant atrial septal defects (ASDs)
5-Ventricular Septal Defects: Anatomy
  • Review the ventricular septal anatomy
  • Describe the anatomical division of the ventricular septum
  • Identify anatomical components of the ventricular septum in various planes
  • Describe the various locations ventricular septal defects (VSDs) can occur
  • Describe what differentiates membranous from perimembranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
6-Ventricular Septal Defects: Physiology
  • Review the ventricular septal anatomy
  • Identify the anatomical location of various ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
  • Describe how ventricular septal defects (VSDs) can be classified
  • Describe physiologic features associated with restrictive and non-restrictive ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
  • List and describe the four physiologic categories associated with restrictive and non-restrictive ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
  • List the physical exam findings associated with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) and how the hemodynamic findings can explain them
7-Ventricular Septal Defects: ECG Findings
  • Describe the pathophysiology of ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
  • List some potential causes of ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
  • Identify different types of ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
  • Describe the ECG features associated with ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
8-Atrioventricular Septal Defects
  • Review the embryologic development of the cardiac septum
  • Identify the anatomical location of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)
  • List clinical conditions associated with atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)
  • Describe characteristic features of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)
  • Describe what a gooseneck deformity represents
  • Describe how atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) alter left ventricular geometry, including the left ventricular inlet and outlet lengths
  • Describe the clinical significance of elongation of the left ventricular outflow resulting from atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)
  • Describe how to differentiate between partial, transitional, intermediate, and complete atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)
  • Describe the difference between balanced and unbalanced atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)
Contributors: Nandan Anavekar, MBBCh; Mahmoud Ismayl, MD; Khalid Saeed Al-Asad, MD; Adnan Halboni, MD; Adolfo Martinez Salazar, MD; Anthony Kashou, MD
Last updated: January 2023.
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