BLOCK 10: Infective Endocarditis & Cardiomyopathies
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Learning Objectives By Lesson
Infective Endocarditis
  • Define infective endocarditis
  • Identify the most common pathogens of infective endocarditis
  • Describe the pathophysiology of infective endocarditis
  • Identify predisposing factors for infective endocarditis
  • Describe the positive echocardiographic findings of infective endocarditis
  • Describe the major and minor diagnostic criteria for infective endocarditis
  • Describe what defines a definite, possible, or rejected diagnosis of infective endocarditis
  • Describe the role for echocardiography in infective endocarditis evaluation
  • Describe indications to repeat an echocardiogram in the evaluation of infective endocarditis
  • Describe the role of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiopgy in the evaluation of infective endocarditis
  • Identify common sites for vegetations in infective endocarditis to occur
  • Identify infective endocarditis vegetation mimickers
  • Describe anatomic and hemodynamic complications associated with infective endocarditis
  • Define an abscess and its clinical implications in the context of infective endocarditis
  • Describe features associated with an incresaed embolic risk in infective endocarditis
  • Describe a general management approach for infective endocarditis based on patient risk
  • Describe the evaluation approach for prosthetic valve endocarditis
  • Describe features that should be evaluated on echocardiography for prosthetic valve endocarditis
  • Describe the risk of infection in patients with a cardiac device
  • Describe the management approach for patients with cardiac device infection
  • Idenitfy risk factor for cardiac device infection
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Define hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and its basic characteristics
  • Describe the role of echocardiography in the evaluation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Describe the expected findings to the mitral valve apparatus from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Describe how M-mode, color flow imaging, pulse wave Doppler, and color wave Doppler can be used in the evaluation of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
  • Describe the continuous wave Doppler findings seen in aortic stenosis, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and mid-cavitary obstruction
  • Describe the role of strain echocardiography and exercise testing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Explain the concept of burned-out hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Describe screening and surveillance for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Fundamentals
  • Identify various causes of dilated cardiomyopathy
  • List diagnostic features of primary and secondary dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Describe how to determine the sphericity index and how it changes with dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Identify M-mode parameters of reduced left ventricular function associated with dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Describe the contemporary echocardiographic approaches that utilize volumetric and Doppler-based parameters in the evaluation of dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Identify secondary effects of dilated cardiomyopathy that can adversely affect prognosis
Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Special Topics
  • Describe echocardiographic features that can help differentiate between ischemic and nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction
  • Explain what is meant by dyssynchrony and the benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)
  • Describe how to optimize the AV delay in patients with a pacing device
  • List echocardiographic parameters used in the evaluation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) candidacy
  • List the echocardiographic parameters used in the evaluation of a patient with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD)
Contributors: Nandan Anavekar, MBBCh; Abdullah Al-abcha, MD; Muhannad Aboud Abbasi, MBBCh; Anthony Kashou, MD
Last updated: July 2023.

GCU Education Team
Physician Educators