BLOCK 3: Cardiovascular Risk Factors
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Learning Objectives By Lesson
1-Cardiovascular Risk Factors
  • Describe the purpose of identifying cardiovascular risk factors
  • List and describe various prevention opportunities
  • Identify four major risk factors of cardiovascular disease
  • Identify targets we should aim for from a preventive standpoint for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus
  • Understand how the interaction of risk factors influences the decision to treat
  • Undersrand why the threshold for pharmacologic therapy must consider the risk and benefit of therapy
  • Identify monogenic forms of hypertension
  • Identify contributors to the pathogenesis of essential hypertension
  • Describe the blood vessel adaptation and end-organ effects of essential hypertension
  • Describe the stages of hypertension
  • Idenitfy factors used to estimate 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk
  • Describe how the estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk can be used to help guide clinical decision making
  • Describe the goals and treatment strategies for hypertension management
  • Select specific antihypertensive agents based on associated comorbid conditions
  • Differentiate resistant and refractory hypertension
3-Severe Hypertension
  • Define the blood pressure cutoff for severe hypertension
  • Differentiate between hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency
  • Identify determinants of mean arterial pressure
  • Describe the physiologic response of blood vessels to increased perfusion pressure
  • Identify risk factors for severe hypertension
  • Describe the clinical evaluation and initial workup for severe hypertension
  • Describe the goals of therapy for severe hypertension
  • Identify agents to consider in the management of severe hypertension
  • Describe the pathophysiology and presentation of hypertensive encephalopathy
  • Describe the pathophysiology of and management approach to stroke in the setting of hypertension
  • Identify secondary causes of hyperlipidemia
  • Identify causes of increased LDL-C and triglycerides
  • Describe why it is important to idenitfy and treat hyperlipidemia
  • Describe when and how to estimate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk
  • Describe the various intensity levels of statin therapy
  • Identify low-, moderate-, and high-intensity statin therapies
  • Identify primary prevention groups for hyperlipidemia and assign proper therapies for each group
  • Identify and describe the role of risk enhancers in evaluating eligibility for statin therapy
  • Describe the clinical indication of aspirin for primary prevention
Contributors: Nandan Anavekar, MBBCh; Mahmoud Ismayl, MD; Khalid Saeed Al-Asad, MD; Adnan Halboni, MD; Adolfo Martinez Salazar, MD; Anthony Kashou, MD
Last updated: January 2023.

GCU Education Team
Physician Educators