BLOCK 4: Imaging Basics & Hemodynamics
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Learning Objectives By Lesson
Standard Imaging Planes
  • List the standard imaging views obtained during surface echocardiography
  • Identify anatomical structures of the heart in different standard imaging views
Stroke Volume
  • Explain the relationship between blood flow and blood velocity
  • Describe time-velocity integral and its relationship to stroke distance
  • Explain how can blood flow be derived from blood velocity acquired from echocardiography
  • Describe how to derive stroke volume on echocardiography, including where measurements should be performed
  • Understand the relationship between time-voltage integral and stroke volume
Pressure Gradients
  • Explain how to measure pressure gradients using echocardiography
  • Describe how to derive and when to use the modified and simplified Bernoulli equations to determine pressure gradients between chambers
  • Calculate instantaneous and mean pressure gradients between chambers
  • Identify sources of error when trying to measure pressure gradients between chambers
  • Determine the right ventricular systolic pressure, pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, and left ventricular end diastolic pressure
Pressure Half Time
  • Explain what pressure half time is
  • Describe how to obtain pressure half time from Doppler echocardiography
  • Recognize clinical applications of pressure half time and conditions that influence it
Continuity Principle
  • Describe the continuity equation
  • Identify clinical applications of the continuity equation
  • Explain how to determine valve area using the continuity equation
  • Describe advantages of the continuity equation
  • Describe the proximal isovelocity surface area in relation to the continuity equation and its clinical application

GCU Education Team
Physician Educators